Ministry of the
Solicitor General


Policing in Ontario

Appropriate, effective policing is vital so we can all live in safety in our communities. To make sure the people of Ontario have the security they need and expect, the Police Services Act (the act) and related regulations set the standards for police services and spell out who is responsible for police services and how they will operate. The legislation:

  • gives municipalities the responsibility for providing police services
  • gives the ministry the responsibility for interpreting the act and regulations, as well as the responsibility for inspecting the activities of Ontario’s police services
  • identifies core activities for policing in Ontario
  • describes six principles for police services to follow in carrying out those activities.

The role of municipalities

Municipalities can provide police services for their citizens in several ways. They can:

  • set up their own police service
  • arrange with one or more municipalities to have a joint police service for the area
  • hire the police service of another municipality
  • hire the Ontario Provincial Police (OPP).

There are 44 municipal police services in Ontario, in addition to the OPP, for a total of 45. There are also nine self-administered First Nations police services in Ontario.

The role of the ministry

The ministry has a wide range of responsibilities for policing in Ontario. Under the act, the ministry:

  • Writes and updates the Policing Standards Manual which explains in detail the standards Ontario’s police must follow. The manual also provides guidelines on how to follow the standards.
  • Inspects police services to make sure they comply with the act.
  • Is responsible for the Ontario Police College, which trains police recruits and offers advanced training for experienced police officers and civilian employees of police services.
  • Is responsible for Ontario Provincial Police, which provides police services in some municipalities plus police service on the province’s highways, trails and waterways.
  • Researches criminal justice trends that affect policing.
  • Oversees the Ontario operations of the Canadian Police Information Centre. This is a national database of information on wanted and missing persons, stolen vehicles, and other crime-related issues.

Standards for police services

The standards that police services must meet are set out in the act and regulations such as the Adequacy and Effectiveness of Police Services regulation.

The ministry’s Policing Standards Manual contains these guidelines to help municipalities and police services, including the OPP, understand and know how to follow the act and regulations. The manual:

  • explains the ministry’s position on policy issues
  • gives information and advice on how to manage and operate a police service
  • makes recommendations for local policies, procedures and programs
  • helps police services coordinate their activities
  • encourages community-oriented police services
  • promotes professional police practices, standards and training.

Inspecting Ontario’s police

The act gives the ministry the responsibility for inspecting Ontario’s police services. This ensures that communities in Ontario receive a consistently high standard of policing. The ministry:

  • regularly checks on police services to make sure they follow the act, the regulations and the guidelines
  • helps police services work together to share intelligence and exchange information about major cases across the province
  • helps local police boards, community policing advisory committees, municipal chiefs of police, employers of special constables and police associations to resolve questions or issues about policing and police services

The police services advisors help municipal governments, police services and police services boards to consider their options for providing local police services. The advisors are always in contact with police services to help them solve problems. They also train local police services boards to help them understand their responsibilities.

Policing in Ontario: core activities

Ontario’s police services:

  1. prevent crime
  2. enforce our laws
  3. help victims
  4. keep public order
  5. respond to emergencies.

Municipalities must also:

  1. provide the police services with the support systems, buildings and equipment they need so they can carry out their activities.

Policing in Ontario: six principles

Ontario is the first province in Canada to have a Declaration of Principles written into its statutes. With these principles, Ontario’s police are committed to:

  1. Ensuring the safety and security of all people and property in Ontario.
  2. Safeguarding the fundamental rights guaranteed by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and the Ontario Human Rights Code.
  3. Working closely with the communities they serve.
  4. Respecting victims of crime and working to understand their needs.
  5. Being sensitive to the diverse, multiracial and multicultural character of Ontario society.
  6. Ensuring that police services are representative of the communities they serve.

Use of force race data collection

As of January 1, 2020, under the Anti-Racism Act, the ministry is required to collect data on the race of people who have experienced a use of force when interacting with the police, and a Use of Force Report is completed. Use of Force Reports are completed by the police and examples of when a report is required include use of a firearm or another weapon. Data collected by the ministry from the report must also include other information that police are legally required to provide to the ministry, except the individual’s name. All information gathered will be used to identify, monitor and address potential racial bias or profiling, while maintaining the privacy and protection of any individuals included.

The Use of Force Report requires police to state their perception of the person’s race. The reports are reviewed by designated staff within the police service, and their chief of police, or designate, is required to submit information from the report to the ministry.

For questions about use of force race data collection, please contact the ministry’s Public Safety Division at:

Learn more:

Ontario Civilian Policing Commission
Ontario Association of Police Services Boards