Security Guard Syllabus

Private Security and Investigative Services

Training syllabus for security guards


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Training content and program length

The minimum length of in-class time for the basic security guard training program is no less than 40 hours with Emergency Level First Aid Certification included or no less than 33.5 hours with Emergency Level First Aid Certification not included. The following table suggests the duration for each training section and includes both in-class and outside class hours. Outside class hours refer to pre-reading only; all other training methods must take place in-class. These hours are estimates and may need to be adjusted based on student learning abilities/trainer preference. The trainer must determine the optimal number of hours for each section of his/her program design, but the total must be no less than 40 or 33.5 hours with Emergency Level First Aid Certification not included.

Training content and suggested duration
Training content Suggested Duration
Inside Class Hours Outside class hours
1. Introduction to the Security Industry 2 2
2. The Private Security and Investigative Services Act 2 3
3. Basic Security Procedures 3 5
4. Report Writing 2 2
5. Health and Safety 1 1
6. Emergency Response Preparation 4 4
7. Canadian Legal System 3 6
8. Legal Authorities 7.5 10
9. Effective Communications 4 3
10. Sensitivity Training 3 2
11. Use of Force Theory 2 2
12. Emergency Level First Aid Certification 6.5 -
Total 40 40

Working and detailed knowledge

Each section identifies whether the student needs to have working knowledge or detailed knowledge of the training material.

Working knowledge is defined as involving a basic or sufficient understanding of the relevance of materials, products, subject matter, and/or services as required to perform the work assignment. Students with working knowledge can recognize departures from the standards set for the work assignment but require additional information through reference material or from others to correct the departures.

Detailed knowledge is defined as involving an in-depth understanding of materials, products, subject matter, and/or services that is necessary to complete the work assignment. Students with detailed knowledge can recognize departures from the standards set for the work assignment and correct the departure without the need to acquire additional information from reference material or from others.


Training methodology

In addition to the requirements of each section, it is recommended that the training program include a learning journal, pre-reading materials and training evaluation components. These are common techniques used in training design to promote the integration of material and background preparation as a way of maximizing in-class time for discussion. Please note that these are suggestions only and that the primary focus of each section is the minimum training requirements.

Learning journal
A learning journal is a notebook that the student uses to record course information and insights. It is a common tool used in training programs to facilitate additional learning and it is recommended that the journal be used throughout the course (and highlighted in appropriate sections) to enhance the learning experience of the student.

Pre-reading
Many sections suggest pre-reading activities for the student. This pre-reading should consist of summarized versions of the training content (e.g. legislation). Outside class hours have been allocated for this pre-reading.

Training evaluation
As the majority of content in the security guard training program is focused on the application of learned knowledge, it is recommended that training evaluation include knowledge-based tests.


Instructor/student ratio

It is recommended that the instructor/student ratio is 1/24 for the basic security guard training program to ensure the quality of instruction for the student.


Training delivery method

Students can complete basic Security Guard training through either a classroom-based course or a web-based course.

Web-based courses must include some real-time interaction with an instructor, should the student require it.

Basic Security Guard training obtained through web-based, instructor-led distance learning qualifies to meet the ministry’s requirement for training. Courses delivered live through a video conference are acceptable. Only students who have attended an in-class or online training course in full qualify to take the test(s).


Table of Contents

Section 1: Introduction to the Security Industry
Section 2: The Private Security and Investigative Services Act and Ministry Code of Conduct
Section 3: Basic Security Procedures
Section 4: Report Writing
Section 5: Health and Safety
Section 6: Emergency Response Preparation
Section 7: Canadian Legal System
Section 8: Legal Authorities
Section 9: Effective Communications
Section 10: Sensitivity Training
Section 11: Use of Force Theory
Section 12: Emergency Level First Aid Certification
References
Appendix A: Syllabus Research Methodology for Security Guards and Private Investigators
Appendix B: Acts and websites


Section 1: Introduction to the Security Industry

Section Overview

The trainer provides a summary of the principal duties and responsibilities necessary to work effectively in the security industry. Students will learn to interpret and comply with the legal requirements of their occupation as well as identify job roles and responsibilities.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 2 hours
Outside class: 2 hours

Minimum Requirements
  • Describe and compare the different jobs in the security industry (e.g. private investigation, security services, loss prevention, and patrol services)
  • Describe the occupation of a security guard with respect to the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform well
  • Describe the job specifications, activities, and demands of a security guard (e.g. travel, off-hours, stress, risks, dangers, etc.)
  • Explain differences between private security and police officers.

Note: It is recommended that the learning journal be introduced in this section if the trainer chooses to use the journal as a teaching mechanism throughout the course.

Outline

The trainer provides the student with a background on the security industry including the changes in the industry as a result of the new Private Security and Investigative Services Act, 2005 (PSISA). S/he introduces the student to the challenges and benefits of becoming a security guard. The role of a security guard with respect to the public should be discussed.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading of job description and introductory materials
  2. Lecture
  3. Introductory video
  4. Facilitated discussion of the demands placed on security guards
  5. Learning journal
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

A quiz on the relevant sections of the PSISA and Code of Conduct.


Section 2: The Private Security and Investigative Services Act and Ministry Code of Conduct

Section Overview

The Private Security and Investigative Services Act, 2005 (PSISA) regulates the security industry. As such, security guards must be familiar with the PSISA to ensure that they follow the PSISA and its regulations, including the Code of Conduct and associated prohibitions. The trainer introduces the legislation to the student by outlining all relevant components and explaining the Code of Conduct.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 2 hours
Outside class: 3 hours

Minimum Requirements
  1. Private Security and Investigative Services Act, 2005 (PSISA)
  • Explain an individual's responsibility regarding licensing, including the licensing process and mandatory requirements
  • Describe the general duties, standards, practices, regulations and prohibitions
  • Explain the requirement to produce a licence
  1. Code of Conduct
  • Explain the relevant components and the consequences of failing to comply
  • Define complaint procedures
Outline

This section introduces the student to his/her responsibilities as a security guard under the PSISA. The trainer provides instruction on all the relevant requirements of the PSISA and Code of Conduct, the consequences for non-compliance and public complaint procedures. The authority to act as a security guard should also be discussed.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading of the relevant sections of the PSISA and Code of Conduct
  2. Lecture on the elements of the act and code
  3. Discussion group for clarification of inappropriate behaviours
  4. Learning journal
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

A quiz on the relevant sections of the PSISA and Code of Conduct.


Section 3: Basic Security Procedures

Section Overview

Security guards need to respond to changes in their environment, which includes actions such as traffic movement, ensuring the safety of persons between and within locations, monitoring and managing the access and departure of persons and vehicles and observing and monitoring people. Security guards need to be aware of the correct way to deal with these situations. The trainer provides his/her students with the knowledge and skills to assess the security of physical environments, to apply basic aspects of security in their roles and to assess the impact of drug use in the context of safety for oneself and others.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 3 hours
Outside class: 5 hours

Minimum Requirements
  1. Describe and explain surveillance and address the following surveillance techniques:
  • Observing the physical environment
  • Attending to environmental details
  • Situational awareness
  1. Describe the basic elements of security and include the following:
  • Access control
  • Crowd control
  • Vehicle control and legal authority to perform traffic control duties
  • Shift handover
  1. Discuss drug effects, substance abuse and related drug paraphernalia
  • Relate signs of substance abuse and withdrawal including physical and psychological consequences

Note: There are three components in this section: Surveillance, Basic Elements of Security and Drug Effects.


Surveillance
Outline

Security guards will be called upon to observe the physical environment for changes and suspicious behaviour. This objective is typically achieved by conducting an in-person or remote surveillance of the physical environment. Security guards are expected to notice and monitor minor changes in order to make sound decisions when devising a plan of action. The trainer focuses on:

  • Decision-making
  • Recognizing patterns (situational awareness)
  • Observing minor, yet critical details
  • Recognizing typicality and detecting anomalies
  • Improvising responses
  • Interpreting and adapting to events
  • Prioritizing actions

Observing and monitoring individuals, identifying and responding to potential threats, different types of patrolling and loss prevention should be discussed.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading on surveillance and observational issues
  2. Lecture on methods of observation (e.g. assessing unusual events, identifying hazards to self and others, completing initial checks to establish a benchmark for subsequent observations, using all five senses for observation, writing notes of observations)
  3. Lecture on decision-making to ensure safety and security (e.g. assessing risk of current and potential situation to self and others, assessing what skills are required to deal effectively with particular situations, assessing the behaviours of others and the physical environment)
  4. Role playing with analysis and group discussion
  5. Learning journal

Basic Elements of Security
Outline

Security guards are required to manage individuals, vehicles and materials in a safe and polite manner while assessing a situation for threats and incidents. The trainer addresses the following basic elements of security:

  1. Access control
  • How to escort people within and between locations in a safe manner
  • How to prepare for an assignment
  • Contacting the correct personnel when there is a breach of security
  • How to inspect baggage, vehicles, etc.
  1. Crowd control
  • How to create a barricade or staging area
  • How to lock down a facility
  1. Vehicle control
  • Controlling vehicular/pedestrian traffic on company property or on public roads in emergencies
  • Monitoring traffic movements
  • Using proper hand signals for directing traffic
  • Using traffic control equipment
  • Wearing the appropriate attire
  1. Shift handover procedures
  • How to update the next person on shift
Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading on basic security protocols
  2. Lecture
  3. Video and discussion
  4. Role playing with analysis and group discussion
  5. Learning journal

Drug Effects
Outline

Security guards may encounter individuals under the influence of drugs or alcohol. They need to be aware of the signs of substance abuse as well as the impact of different drugs on human behaviour (e.g. subject going through withdrawal) in order to deal with these individuals in a manner that will ensure personal safety as well as that of the subject. The trainer discusses different types of drugs and paraphernalia, the impact of using different drugs on human behaviour and how to address individual behaviour depending on the type of substance abuse.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Working

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading focused on the intoxication effects of commonly abused drugs such as cannabinoids, depressants, dissociative anesthetics, hallucinogens, opioids/morphine derivatives, stimulants and inhalants
  2. Lecture on how to address individuals under the effect of commonly abused drugs
  3. Role playing with analysis and group discussion
  4. Learning journal
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

A quiz asking questions that apply the knowledge of surveillance approaches to security control with standard protocols and how to manage individuals under the influence of different drugs in common security situations.


Section 4: Report Writing

Section Overview

Security guards are required to complete written reports of occurrences, duties performed, and comprehensive descriptions of their tasks/observations. The trainer instructs the student how to write reports that are objective and standardized.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 2 hours
Outside class: 2 hours

Minimum Requirements

Discuss the following elements of report writing:

  • How to record relevant factual data and circumstances in a notebook
  • The different types and purposes of reports
  • Recognizing legal implications of reports and confidentiality
  • Incorporating who, what, where, when, why and how in report writing
  • How to take a statement
  • Identifying the appropriate method of communication to report an issue
Outline

Security guards are required to write a variety of reports for different audiences. It is imperative that reports are written in a clear, standardized format to ensure information is conveyed accurately and without bias. The trainer discusses:

  • The importance of using a notebook and the rules and format for taking accurate notes
  • Different types of reports depending on the situation (e.g. incident, use of force, witness statements)
  • The basic elements of report writing (e.g. date, time, location, actions/behaviours, description of individuals, observations, time of completion, etc.)
  • Content of reports (e.g. factual information only)
  • The legal implications of reports (e.g. necessary for audits or evidence in court)
  • The difference between statements and reports
  • How to properly distribute reports (e.g. problems with e-mailing confidential reports)
Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed


Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading of sample reports
  2. Lecture on the different types of reports/templates
  3. Lecture on the elements of an objective report (e.g. focus on factual information, written in third person, avoids use of emotional terms, avoids introspection, presents the information in a clear and concise manner)
  4. Report analysis exercise: detect and discuss in small groups problems with reports, missing information, bias, etc.
  5. Learning journal
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

A one-page report where the student summarizes a recent work related incident (that can be shared without identifying information).


Section 5: Health and Safety

Section Overview

The policies and procedures of the Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSA) and the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) are necessary to ensure the occupational safety of security guards and those they interact with. The trainer identifies how to control workplace risks and hazards, how to apply appropriate responses to emergency situations and how to communicate workplace safety requirements.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 1 hour
Outside class: 1 hour

Minimum Requirements
  1. Outline the OHSA
  2. Outline the WHMIS
Outline

The trainer provides a brief introduction to the OHSA and WHMIS. Security guards need to know and understand how the OHSA and WHMIS apply to themselves and to others. The trainer should also cover the right to refuse unsafe work.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Working

Suggested Methodology
  1. Lecture with brief discussion
  2. Provide examples of security situations in which OHSA and WHMIS apply (e.g. accepting a delivery of hazardous materials, fire on the premises close to hazardous materials, security guard on patrol noticing a hazardous container leaking, etc.)
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

A quiz that requires the student to apply the OHSA and WHMIS to common security guard situations.


Section 6: Emergency Response Preparation

Section Overview

Security guards are expected to respond to emergency situations and to minimize the impact caused at a worksite. They may be required to perform a variety of duties during emergency procedures and must understand the importance of scene management. The trainer will address the potential roles of a security guard during an emergency situation and how to effectively complete these tasks.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 4 hours
Outside class: 4 hours

Minimum Requirements
  1. Identify the following criteria of a potential emergency:
  • Risk factors
  • Fire emergencies
  • Bomb emergencies
  • Weapon emergencies
  • Suspicious packages
  • Explosive devices
  1. Describe the following emergency response procedures:
  • Explain fire emergency response procedures
  • Explain bomb emergency response procedures
  • Explain weapon emergency response procedures
  • Explain suspicious package emergency response procedures
  • Explain explosive device emergency response procedures
  1. Explain the potential roles of a security guard in emergency situations
  2. Detail how to implement duty of care
  • Describe legal requirements
  • Detail how to protect and secure a crime scene

Note: There are four components in this section: Emergency Situations, Emergency Response Procedures, Potential Roles of a Security Guard During an Emergency and Duty of Care.


Emergency Situation
Outline

Security guards may encounter emergency situations at a worksite. They will need to accurately identify the risk factors associated with fire threats, bomb threats, weapon emergencies, suspicious packages, and explosive devices and learn how to respond appropriately. The trainer outlines the different risk factors a security guard must be familiar with and how to protect individuals and property associated with an assignment (i.e. contain, activate, and evacuate). In addition to emergency responses, the trainer includes an overview of the basic principles of prevention and safety.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Working

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading on different types of threats
  2. Lecture with brief discussion
  3. Case studies with analysis and group discussion
  4. Learning journal

Emergency Response Procedures
Outline

Security guards must be comfortable when responding to emergency situations, familiar with different emergency procedures and must coordinate these procedures with organizational requirements and/or other personnel. Understanding the need for emergency response procedures and following the emergency response plan for a given site is vital to the security guard role. The trainer provides instruction on the following:

  • The different emergency response procedures (e.g. First Aid and CPR)
  • Common tools associated with response procedures (e.g. fire extinguisher, sprinkler systems)
  • Determining the safest and most appropriate response to a threat
  • How to preserve evidence
  • Proper evacuation protocol and knowledge of access routes
  • How to control access for emergency services and provide necessary details
  • Site-specific building occupant capacity limits (e.g. Ontario Fire Code and building specific regulations with respect to occupancy)
Working/Detailed Knowledge

Working

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading on standard protocols for emergency response
  2. Lecture with brief discussion
  3. Conduct emergency response activities
  4. Case studies with analysis and group discussion
  5. Learning journal

Potential Roles of a Security Guard During an Emergency
Outline

Security guards may be required to fulfill different roles during an emergency situation. They may have to assist other personnel (including police, fire, and ambulance) or take the lead in responding to the emergency. Security guards must be able to work alongside other personnel and quickly and accurately understand their role in a given situation. They must recognize when an emergency is beyond the scope of their job specifications and requires additional assistance. The trainer provides an overview of the relationships in the security industry, including a matrix with job titles, descriptions, responsibilities and the link between them to help security guards understand when a situation is beyond their scope and who to contact in specific emergency situations.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading on different key roles for fire, police, medical staff and security in emergency situations
  2. Lecture with brief discussion
  3. Group discussion of emergency situations involving different emergency responses
  4. Learning journal

Duty of Care
Outline

Security guards need to be familiar with the concept of duty of care generally (what a reasonable person should do in a particular situation) and how this duty might impact them in securing a crime scene. They also need to be familiar with how to properly secure and protect a crime scene until the appropriate personnel arrive.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading on duty of care and managing crime scenes
  2. Case studies with consequences that emphasize the importance of duty of care and the protection of evidence
  3. Student self-assessment - what would the student do in different situations?
  4. Learning journal
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

A quiz on the types of emergency situations, different emergency response procedures and the role of a security guard in these emergencies.


Section 7: Canadian Legal System

Section Overview

Security guards work within the Canadian Legal System. They need to be familiar with the Criminal Court System, the Ontario Evidence Act, the Canada Evidence Act and how these apply to their positions to ensure the information they obtain is admissible in court. The trainer outlines the difference between criminal, provincial and municipal law as well as case and common law, the hierarchy of the court system and offences and the requirements for the admissibility of evidence.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 3 hours
Outside class: 6 hours

Minimum Requirements
  1. Discuss the Canadian Criminal Court System
  • Outline the Canadian Criminal Court System, the hierarchy of the court system and court protocols/procedures
  • Describe the protocols and procedures for the purpose of giving evidence
  1. Explain commonly accepted approaches to the collection, preservation and presentation of evidence including the handling and sealing of audio/visual materials
  2. Explain relevant sections of the Ontario Evidence Act and Canada Evidence Act that pertain to admissible evidence
  3. Discuss municipal by-laws

Note: There are three components in this section: Canadian Criminal Court System, Evidence Handling Techniques and Municipal By-laws.

The Ontario Evidence Act and Canada Evidence Act do not specify how evidence is collected, but identify which types of evidence are admissible to the court. The trainer should concentrate on what is considered evidence and which methods a security guard can use to ensure it remains admissible. Security guards are only expected to know the municipal by-laws that relate to their role and where to find this information if it is not readily available on their premises.


Canadian Criminal Court System
Outline

Security guards may be required to prepare for legal proceedings, present evidence, prepare themselves and/or witnesses for testimony and follow up on the outcome of court proceedings. Security guards need a general understanding that all investigations should be conducted as if the case could potentially go to trial and therefore handle themselves accordingly to ensure that no procedural or administrative mistakes are made. The trainer covers the skills and knowledge required to present evidence in a judicial environment.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Working

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading on the basics of the court system
  2. Lecture with graphic depiction of the Canadian Criminal Court System
  3. Exercise regarding the preparation for trial and/or preparation of witnesses for court
  4. Simulation or mock trial presenting testimonies and evidence
  5. Learning journal

Evidence Handling Techniques
Outline

Security guards protect evidence that may be used in court. The trainer will explain how to collect, preserve, and present admissible evidence in court while preventing the evidence from becoming contaminated. Concepts will include an introduction to the process and protocols for handling evidence, including:

  • The proper procedures for collecting and handling audio/video materials
  • The six core steps for containing evidence:
  • Collect
  • Secure
  • Preserve
  • Identify
  • Continuity
  • Log
Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading of the relevant sections of the Ontario Evidence Act and Canada Evidence Act
  2. Lecture with discussion on the six core steps and common mistakes
  3. An exercise applying all six steps to actual evidence acquiring situations
  4. Demonstration and practice with audio/video equipment
  5. Learning journal

Municipal By-Laws
Outline

Security guards are required to work within the municipal by-laws of their specific location. They need to be familiar with the common by-laws they will encounter in their position (e.g. noise by-laws, occupancy limits, etc.) and where they can locate this information. The trainer focuses on creating awareness that different municipal by-laws exist and need to be considered. It should be noted that the student may obtain/require further training on by-laws relevant to his/her specific position and that the by-laws addressed in this section are the most common to the private security sector.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Working

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading on overview of municipal by-laws (specifically how to find by-laws relevant to any security issues)
  2. Lecture
  3. Learning journal
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

A quiz focused on an overview of the criminal system in Canada, how to collect and prepare admissible evidence and how to find municipal by-law information.


Section 8: Legal Authorities

Section Overview

The trainer focuses on the broader legal context of private security to instruct the student on his/her rights and limitations when performing duties as a security guard. The trainer will also explain where a security guard derives his/her authority to carry out job functions.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 7.5 hours
Outside class: 10 hours

Minimum Requirements
  1. List procedures for handling, storing, disseminating and destroying information of a personal nature
  2. Address the relevant sections of the Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (PIPEDA) regarding the protection of personal information
  3. Outline the relevant sections of the following legislation:
  • Employment Standards Act, 2000
  • Labour Relations Act, 1995
  • Liquor Licence Act
  • Provincial Offences Act
  • Residential Tenancies Act, 2006
  • Trespass to Property Act
  1. Provide the following information with respect to the Criminal Code of Canada:
  • Explain the difference between indictable and summary offences and a security guard’s authority to arrest (e.g. citizen’s arrest)
  • List the most common offences encountered by security guards
  • Review the sections of the code regarding defense of property and defense of persons
  • Explain criminal harassment, mischief, assault, theft, causing disturbances, breaking and entering and possession of stolen property under the code
  1. Explain the common elements of tort law in security situations

Note: There are four components in this section: Handling Information and PIPEDA, Additional Legislation, Criminal Code and Tort Law.

Security guards are only expected to be aware of this legislation as it pertains to their roles. The primary focus should be on best practices with respect to acquiring information to resolve security issues in the context of relevant legislation.


Handling Information and PIPEDA
Outline

Security guards frequently deal with the collection, storage, dissemination and destruction of information. The trainer discusses the procedures and regulations with respect to managing information and explains how to keep information secure while ensuring that it is maintained in a manner consistent with PIPEDA.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Working

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading on the relevant sections of PIPEDA
  2. Discussion on how to interpret and use the act
  3. Case study analysis and solutions with questions pertaining to the collection, storage, dissemination, and destruction of information
  4. Learning journal

Additional Legislation
Outline

Security guards can encounter situations where they need to be familiar with the following legislation:

  • Employment Standards Act, 2000
  • Labour Relations Act, 1999
  • Liquor Licence Act
  • Provincial Offences Act
  • Residential Tenancies Act, 1996
  • Trespass to Property Act

The trainer provides a brief introduction to the relevant sections to each act, addresses the risks and dangers associated with private security and describes how each act can impact the safety and effectiveness on site. Issues of liability should be discussed to ensure the student understands how to complete his/her duties within lawful authority. The trainer also addresses whose authority a security guard is acting on (acting as agent of the property owner) and differences in private versus public property.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Working

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading of the relevant sections of each act
  2. Lecture and class discussion on how to interpret and use the act
  3. Presentation of case law and pictures (e.g. "No trespassing," "Private Property," etc.)
  4. Short multimedia exercises with feedback
  5. Learning journal

Criminal Code, Canada
Outline

Security guards may encounter situations in which they need to deal with indictable, summary, or criminal offences. They need to be able to accurately identify and categorize offences when on duty and understand how to perform a citizen’s arrest according to the Criminal Code, Canada. The trainer introduces the code within the context of liability, duty of care and lawful authority. Defense of property and defense of persons should also be discussed.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Working

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading of the relevant sections of the Criminal Code including Section 494
  2. Lecture and class discussion on how to interpret elements of the criminal code
  3. Presentation of case examples regarding critical incidents and abuse of authority
  4. Categorization exercise regarding the different types of offences
  5. Demonstration of behaviours that are unacceptable based on the code
  6. Learning journal

Tort Law
Outline

Security guards must ensure that they are completing their job within their lawful authority. The trainer explains the common elements of tort law in security situations.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Working

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading on relevant cases
  2. Lecture with discussion on categories of torts
  3. Lecture on what is not acceptable and best practices
  4. Learning journal
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

A quiz focused on contraventions of the acts and torts.


Section 9: Effective Communications

Section Overview

Security guards encounter a wide range of situations and are required to act professionally under all circumstances. The trainer reviews the interpersonal and communication skills necessary to adapt to different environments/scenarios and to diffuse situations when required. The importance of using communication to one’s advantage should be emphasized.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 4 hours
Outside class: 3 hours

Minimum Requirements

Communication Skills

  1. Discuss the following oral and written communication skills:
  • Adjusting a communication style to accommodate an audience or situation
  • Using verbal and non-verbal feedback
  • Using effective and appropriate language in oral and written communication
  • Writing legibly and clearly (e.g. minimal spelling, grammar or typographical errors)
  • Effectively communicating main ideas orally and in writing
  • Avoiding personal bias/opinion when communicating
  • Asking probing questions to obtain information
  • Conveying oral information accurately
  • Writing accurate reports
  1. Explain communication
  • Adjusting behaviour/demeanor (e.g. passive vs. aggressive) based on an individual or situation

Interpersonal Skills

  1. Discuss the following interpersonal skills:
  • Demonstrating sensitivity/empathy to others (e.g. different cultures, persons with disabilities, human rights issues, mental health issues)
  • Establishing a rapport with a variety of people for the purpose of building trusting relationships
  • Diffusing, avoiding and managing difficult interpersonal relationships and/or potential conflict
  • Being assertive yet professional when interacting with the public

Note: There are three components in this section: Communication Skills, Communication and Interpersonal Skills.


Communication Skills
Outline

Security guards must provide clear and concise information. Their position requires them to communicate with a wide array of individuals both orally and in writing and to obtain information from sources that may be unwilling. The trainer addresses active listening, effective writing and note taking.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed

Suggested Methodology
  1. Lecture
  2. Role playing using communication techniques with feedback
  3. Learning journal

Communication
Outline

Security guards may need to utilize communication during the course of their assignments. They must maintain their composure and adjust their behaviour to suit the individual and situation. The trainer explains the principles of communication (both verbal and non-verbal, including posture, tone, assertiveness, spatial distance, eye contact, facial expressions) and de-escalation techniques with progressive intervention steps.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed

Suggested Methodology
  1. Lecture
  2. Role playing
  3. Learning journal

Note: Communication was formally known as “Tactical Communication”.


Interpersonal Skills
Outline

Security guards often interact with a variety of individuals during the course of their duties. Their conduct is vital to the professional image of the security industry as a whole. The trainer describes proper conduct and deportment, how to adapt quickly to different situations and how to perform duties in a culturally appropriate manner. Security guards should be able to scan for potential problems and act in a preventative way to avoid any escalation of events.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed

Suggested Methodology
  1. Lecture
  2. Role playing (e.g. 5 minute interactions with feedback)
  3. Learning journal
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

Provide the student with unorganized facts of a situation and require them to prepare a short report. The student role-plays different situations and how they would apply the techniques of communication and de-escalation.


Section 10: Sensitivity Training

Section Overview

Security guards often interact with the public on a daily basis. It is important they approach individuals with respect to avoid any biases that may impact how they interrelate with others. The trainer addresses prejudices against ethnic backgrounds, persons with mental or physical disabilities and gender and sexual orientation.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 3 hours
Outside class: 2 hours

Minimum Requirements

Discuss the following issues:

  1. Recognizing one’s own biases and describing how these can influence situations
  2. Recognizing the impact of mental, physical, cultural and sexual differences on situational dynamics
Outline

Security guards may be required to interact with diverse groups of individuals on a regular basis. The trainer introduces the concept of respect for differences, identifies potential issues that may arise when dealing with a variety of people (e.g. communication difficulties, misinterpretation of gestures) and how to approach individuals in a way that minimizes miscommunication.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Working

Suggested Methodology
  1. Self-assessment of the student’s biases (present the student with scenarios and ask him/her to describe their thoughts)
  2. Lecture focused on how biases impact behaviour
  3. Learning journal with reflection on own biases and how to keep them in check
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

A short quiz focused on human biases and how they can influence behaviour and alter situations.


Section 11: Use of Force Theory

Section Overview

Security guards may be required to use force during certain situations. The trainer explains use of force theory, the components of the use of force model and how to maintain composure during potentially stressful situations. Students need to attend specialized training to learn how to use defensive equipment and to apply use of force options.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 2 hours
Outside class: 2 hours

Minimum Requirements
  1. Explain the authority to use force under the Criminal Code, Canada

• Discuss the use of force model and its framework components

• Explain how to choose an appropriate use of force component and justify an action

  1. Discuss how to act under stress and maintain composure
  2. Explain positional asphyxia and excited delirium
Outline

The trainer explains use of force theory based on the National Use of Force Model (modified for security guards) and outlines Section 25 of the Criminal Code. Security guards can be put in situations where they need to maintain their professional composure even when under a high level of stress. The trainer will also address how to control a situation by asking questions, dealing with difficult customers/clients/subjects, managing stress when isolated or fatigued and personal health issues such as overall stress levels, stress factors, cleanliness, nutrition, lifestyle and fitness. Positional asphyxia and excited delirium should also be discussed.

Working/Detailed Knowledge

Detailed

Suggested Methodology
  1. Pre-reading on use of force model
  2. Lecture on use of force model and theory
  3. Case study analysis, demonstrations and solutions
  4. Role playing with demonstrations
  5. Learning journal
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

A quiz focused on use of force situations that a security guard may encounter and the type of force that would be appropriate.


Section 12: Emergency Level First Aid

Note: This is only required for those students who do not have current, valid Emergency Level First Aid training and certification. Those with valid certification are exempt from this training requirement.

Section Overview

First aid training and certification is a requirement of the basic training program for security guards. An accredited trainer provides instruction that is equivalent to the St. John Ambulance course Emergency Level First Aid.

Suggested Duration:

In class: 6.5 hours

Minimum Requirements
  1. The following topics must be covered:
  • Emergency Scene Management
  • Shock, Unconsciousness and Fainting
  • Choking – Adult
  • Severe Bleeding
  • One Rescuer CPR – Adult.
  1. Training must be delivered by:
  • A St. John Ambulance certified instructor, or
  • A Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (Ontario) approved first aid trainer
Suggested Training Evaluation for Section

Students must complete Emergency Level First Aid training and be certified.


References

Alliger, G. M., & Janak, E. A. (1989). Kirkpatrick’s levels of training criteria: Thirty years later. Personnel Psychology, 42, 331-342.

Alliger, G.M., Tannenbaum, S.I., Bennett, Jr., W., Traver, H., & Shotland, A. (1997). A meta-analysis of the relations among training criteria. Personnel Psychology, 50, 341-358.

Arthur, Jr., W., Bennett, Jr., W., Edens, P.S., & Bell, S.T. (2003). Effectiveness of training in organizations: A meta-analysis of design and evaluation features. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 234-245.

Buster, M. A., Roth, P. L., & Bobko, P. (2005). A process for content validation of education and experienced-based minimum qualifications: An approach resulting in Federal Court approval. Personnel Psychology, 58, 771-799.

Canadian Association of Chiefs of Police (2000). A national use of force framework. Aylmer, ON: Author.

Canadian General Standards Board (2008). Security officers and security officer supervisors. Gatineau, QC: Author.

Douglas College (2006). Essential skills for security personnel: Final report. Coquitlam, BC: Author.

Fine, S. A., & Cronshaw, S. F. (1999). Functional job analysis: A foundation for human resources management. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Goldstein, I.L., & Ford, J.K. (2002). Training in organizations: Needs assessment, development and evaluation (4th edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson Learning.

Graham, K., Jelley, J., & Purcell, J. (2005). Training bar staff in preventing and managing aggression in licensed premises. Journal of Substance Use, 10(1), 48-61.

Groot, N. J. (2001). Canadian law and private investigations. Toronto, ON: Irwin Law.

International Association of Chiefs of Police (undated). Private security officer selection, training, and licensing guidelines. Alexandria, VA: Author.

Justice Institute of British Columbia (2007). Approved security training policy and procedure manual). Vancouver, BC: Author.

Justice Institute of British Columbia (2007). Private security program: Basic standards training 1 – Instructor’s guide (revised). Vancouver, BC: Author.

Justice Institute of British Columbia (2007). Private security program: Basic standards training 2 - Instructor’s guide (revised). Vancouver, BC: Author.

Justice Institute of British Columbia (2007). Private security program: Basic standards training 1 - Participant’s manual (revised). Vancouver, BC: Author.

Justice Institute of British Columbia (2007). Private security program: Basic standards training 2 - Participant’s manual (revised). Vancouver, BC: Author.

Kirkpatrick, D.L. (1959a). Techniques for evaluating training programs. Journal of the American Society of Training Directors, 13, 3-9.

Kirkpatrick, D.L. (1959b). Techniques for evaluating training programs. Journal of the American Society of Training Directors, 13, 21-26.

Kirkpatrick, D.L. (1960a). Techniques for evaluating training programs. Journal of the American Society of Training Directors, 14, 13-18.

Kirkpatrick, D.L. (1960b). Techniques for evaluating training programs. Journal of the American Society of Training Directors, 14, 28-32.

Law Commission of Canada (2006). In search of security: The future of policing in Canada. Ottawa, ON: Author.

Levine, E. L, Maye, D. M., Ulm, R. A., & Gordon, T. R. (1997). A methodology for developing and validating minimum qualifications (MQs). Personnel Psychology, 50, 1009-1023.

Lister, S., Hadfield, P., Hobbs, D., & Winlow, S. (2001). Accounting for bouncers: Occupational licensing as a mechanism for regulation. Criminal Justice, 1(4), 363-384.

Pinnell, N., & Ried, B. (2005). Manitoba security guard training program. Winnipeg, MB: Department of Justice for the Province of Manitoba.

Saskatchewan Justice - Corrections, Public, Safety and Policing (2008). Private investigator and security guard training manual. Regina, SK: Author.

U.S. Department of Energy. (1997). Guide to good practices for developing learning objectives. Washington, DC: Author.

U.S. Department of Energy. (1994). Training program handbook: A systematic approach to training. Washington, DC: Author.


Appendix A: Syllabus Research Methodology for Security Guards and Private Investigators

This document summarizes the methodology used to develop the training syllabus for both security guards and private investigators under the Private Security and Investigative Services Act, 2005 (PSISA). The Ministry of Community Safety and Correctional Services developed the syllabus required for mandatory training and the following were the key steps used in the methodology:

  1. Occupational Grouping and Job Analysis
  2. Skills Modeling
  3. Validation of the Job Analyses and Skills Modeling Data
  4. Identification of Training Requirements, Syllabus Design and Validation
Occupational Grouping and Job Analysis

“Occupational groups,” composed of private security and investigative positions, were established to determine the necessary training requirements for each syllabus. The private security industry was regularly consulted to ensure the accuracy of the different groupings and to discuss the distinctions that exist between the various positions. A review of existing materials on the security industry was conducted in addition to working with industry representatives, resulting in the following definitions for the different occupational groups:

  • Private Investigators (PI)
  • Security Guards with “No Active Intervention” (SG1)
  • Security Guards with “Active Intervention” (SG2)

Once the occupational groups were established, a formal job analysis was completed to catalogue the components that comprised each position. The analysis was conducted using “Functional Job Analysis” (FJA) methodology, which focuses on the tasks that comprise a job and views each task as the smallest complete unit of work activity. The end product of the FJA is a list of “task statements,” which indicate the required knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) to achieve a specific task.

The FJA of an occupation requires input from job incumbents through a facilitated focus-group format. The ministry conducted focus group sessions for each occupational category. The focus groups were composed of individuals based on their experience, industry sector, gender, minority representation, and geography to ensure an accurate representation of the diversity, tasks and employment profile of the security industry in Ontario. To participate in a focus group, individuals were required to have a minimum of 2 years’ experience and his/her manager’s recommendation.

Skills Modeling

The knowledge, skills and abilities required by the different occupational groups were defined in detail after they were identified by the FJA. Performance-Oriented Skills Modeling (POSM) methodology was used to achieve a detailed definition of each skill and to articulate the standards for assessing skill performance. Similar to the FJA, the POSM methodology employs a facilitated focus group format with industry job incumbents as participants.

A POSM focus group session was conducted for each occupational group following the FJA focus groups and the same participants were used.

Validation of the Job Analysis and Skills Modeling Data

After the task statements were formally drafted, and the knowledge, skills and abilities formally defined, a survey was conducted with the primary objective of validating this data. The “Ontario 2007 Security Guard and Private Investigator Job Survey” listed 45 task statements, 79 knowledge and skills statements, and included general questions addressing role identification, location, experience, etc. Respondents (individuals in the security industry) were asked to evaluate each statement in terms of its applicability to their role, importance, clarity, frequency (task statement only), and if it was required before they started their career (KSA statements only). Prior to distribution, the survey was piloted as a draft questionnaire with professional security guards.

The distribution of the survey followed a “stratified random sampling” approach, which randomly selected individuals from important groups (i.e. strata) to receive the survey. For example, security personnel were randomly selected for survey distribution within different regions of the province to ensure representation of geographic location. Copies of the survey were also distributed to various private investigator firms, security firms and organizations, and the survey was posted on the ministry’s website and open to all security personnel in the province.

The results from the survey and statistical analysis confirmed the accuracy of the task statements, definitions of the knowledge, skills and abilities, and the occupational groupings.

Identification of Training Requirements, Syllabus Design and Validation

Results from the job analysis and the skills modeling served as the foundation for the final two stages of the syllabus development: identification of training requirements, syllabus design and validation. At this stage, an extensive review of existing materials pertinent to the training of the different occupational groups was conducted. This included research on books, papers and journals related to training design, security training, occupational licensing, use of force, the Canadian General Standards Board standards for security guards and security guards officers, and materials from security training programs offered by educational institutions and training agencies in Ontario.

Identification of Training Requirements

To identify the necessary training requirements, focus group sessions comprised of subject matter experts were conducted: one session for private investigators and a second for security guards.

Over the course of each session, the focus group reviewed the job analysis, skills modeling and research data. This was followed by a facilitated discussion to identify the KSAs that needed to be developed as part of the training program (i.e. training requirements) and to compose a draft of instructional objectives.

Syllabus Design and Validation

Once the training requirements were identified, each focus group met for a session to design the syllabus. The sessions addressed syllabus content (courses), delivery methods, course durations, course sequencing, program duration, and methods/approaches for training delivery.

The data collected from the sessions was consolidated, structured and compiled into the syllabus. The results from the survey analysis were also considered when forming the syllabus structure.

When the syllabus had been drafted, summary presentations for each occupational group were held for academic experts and the contents were validated.


Appendix B: Acts and Websites

Provincial statutes

Federal statutes

Acts

Canada Evidence Act (R.S., 1985, c. C-5)
Courts of Justice Act, 1990
Criminal Code R.S., 1985, c. C-46
Labour Relations Act, 1995 S.O. 1995, CHAPTER 1, Schedule A
Liquor Licence Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. L.19
Occupational Health and Safety Act R.S.O. 1990, Chapter O.1
Occupational Health and Safety Act, WHMIS R.R.O. 1990, REGULATION 860
Ontario Evidence Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. E.23 (Ontario)
Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (2000, c. 5)
Private Security and Investigative Services Act, 2005, Code of Conduct ONTARIO REGULATION 363/07
Private Security and Investigative Services Act, 2005, S.O. 2005, c. 34
Provincial Offences Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. P.33
Residential Tenancies Act, 2006, c. 17, s.261.
Rules of the Ontario Court of Justice in Criminal Proceedings (SI/97-133)
Trespass to Property Act, R.S.O. 1990, c. T.21