Appendices

Fire Prevention Effectiveness Model

Appendices


Appendix I

Needs Analysis

Examples of how to organize and analyze available information to assess and prioritize the relative fire risks are provided below. Fire departments should make the collection and analysis of relevant information an on-going component of their fire prevention activities.

Fire Risk Tables

The sample tables (or some similar method) may be used as a tool to help organize information and analyze the fire risks associated with various property and occupant types or the different causes of fire. The sample tables may be modified in any way necessary to assist a department in evaluating risk.

Remember that the fire risk is a factor of both the Probability of a fire occurring and the Impact of a fire should it occur.

Note: It is recommended that the information used in the tables cover a three to five year period to ensure relevancy to present conditions. If the intention is to track trends in fire losses, the information used should cover at least five years.

There is a separate table available to assist in the evaluation of fire risk to property, occupants, and the risk posed by different causes of fires.

In using the tables:

  1. Insert the information available into the appropriate place.
  2. Review and compare the information, and consider the degree of hazard that is portrayed.
  3. Prioritize the identified risks.
  4. Consider and identify the underlying causes of the risk.
  5. Continue to the Program Selection/Development/Implementation phase to select effective programs to address the identified risks to the community within the resources available.

For the items listed in the left column of the tables, the appropriate information should be gathered on the property, occupant, and fire types of concern to the community. At the very least, the property types that are listed below the table should be analyzed.

It is important to have the total number (or a reasonable estimate) of properties, occupants and/or fires that are being analyzed to determine the relative risk to the community and to plan for effective programs to be implemented. An analysis may determine that the risk of a fire incident for a property or occupant group is very low but that the impact of a fire on this group is very large. This may help to focus on an acceptable solution. For example, the risk of any particular single family dwelling being subject to a fire is relatively low. However, the total fire losses in single family dwellings is significant. In this case, a public safety education program that targets occupants of single family dwellings may be more effective and efficient than thoroughly inspecting and enforcing fire safety for each individual property.

Property Types

The additional property types (listed after the table) can be placed on a separate table, or the table re-formatted to extend the columns to the right and place all the property types being analyzed on the one table.

Property Type

 

PROPERTY TYPE

 

Assembly

Institutional

Single Dwelling Unit

Rooming Houses

Commercial

TOTAL NUMBER OF THESE PROPERTIES

     

NUMBER OF FIRE INCIDENTS

     

NUMBER OF INJURIES

     

NUMBER OF FATALITIES

     

PROPERTY LOSSES $

     

AVERAGE # OF PERSONS AT RISK FROM A FIRE *

     

AVERAGE # OF PERSONS AFFECTED BY A FIRE *

     

IGNITION SOURCES

     

OTHER FACTORS

     

* This is to give an indication of the average number of persons affected or at risk. A range can be used, i.e. large, medium, small, or give an estimate of the average number expected.

OTHER FACTORS may include:

  • the impact of fire to major industries or cultural institutions;
  • concern over properties licensed by the municipality;
  • concern for persons placed in others' care (e.g. schools, daycares, hospitals, Homes for the Aged); and
  • any other factors that are of concern to the community.

PROPERTY TYPES

The following categories may be subdivided further, as appropriate for the subject community.

  • Assembly - properties that contain Assembly occupancies as defined by the Ontario Building Code (OBC)
  • Institutional - properties that contain Institutional occupancies as defined by the OBC
  • Residential, Single Family - single family homes
  • Residential, Two Dwelling Unit - properties that contain two dwelling units
  • Residential, Rooming House - properties occupied as rooming houses
  • Residential, More Than Two Dwelling Units - properties that contain more than 2 units or 10 residential occupants, this would include small apartment buildings and rooming houses
  • Residential, High Rise - properties that contain residential occupancies that are more than six stories in building height
  • Commercial - properties that contain Group D and E Occupancies as defined by the OBC
  • Industrial - properties that contain industrial occupancies as defined by the OBC as Group F
  • Other properties - may include unique occupancies (such as a community centre), community owned properties or properties within specific geographic areas within the community.

Occupant Types

 

OCCUPANT TYPE

 

TOTAL

INFANT

CHILD

ADULT

ELDERLY

POPULATION BY OCCUPANT TYPE

 

 

 

 

 

NUMBER OF INJURIES

 

 

 

 

 

NUMBER OF FATALITIES

 

 

 

 

 

NUMBER OF FIRE INCIDENTS

 

 

 

 

 

IGNITION SOURCES

 

 

 

 

 

SMOKE ALARM STATUS

 

 

 

 

 

PROPERTY TYPES INVOLVED

 

 

 

 

 

OTHER FACTORS

 

 

 

 

 

OTHER FACTORS may include:

Alcohol or drug impairment, mental or physical disability, occupants of a geographic area, language groups and/or any other occupant groups that may be of concern to the community.

Note that it may be appropriate to conduct further analysis for some factors, if the degree of concern is sufficient. For instance, if there are a significant number of injuries involving disabled persons, it may be appropriate to analyze the risks to the disabled population separately.

Fire Types

 

FIRE TYPE (by ignition source or cause)

 

TOTAL

ARSON

COOKING (kitchen)

CARELESS SMOKING

HEATING EQUIPT

ELECTRIC EQUIPT

FIRE INCIDENTS

 

 

 

 

 

 

INJURIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

FATALITIES

 

 

 

 

 

 

$ LOSSES

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTHER FACTORS
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OTHER FACTORS may include:

Property types, areas within the community or any other implications for public safety education, code enforcement or prevention of fire.


Appendix II

Assessing Staffing Requirements

The assessment of the staff required for conducting fire prevention programs must rely on an examination of previous experience and include activities in Inspections, Public Safety Education and Fire Incident Evaluations. The amount of time required for training, planning, organization, supervision and clerical functions must also be taken into consideration.

  1. Determine the amount of time available from the current staff.

This can be calculated separately for each staff member or collectively if the criteria is the same for each (i.e. amount of vacation, hours of work per week).

To determine the amount of time available from the staff assigned exclusively to fire prevention activities, calculate:

Total Hours Per Year

=____Hours Per Week x 52 Weeks

=______

Deduct Vacation

=____Days x ____ Hours Per Day

=______

Deduct Stat. Holidays

=____Days x ____ Hours Per Day

=______

Deduct Sick Leave

=____Days x ____ Hours Per Day

=______

 

=______

Multiply by "Effective Time Factor"

X   0.75

==================================================

Total Hours Available

=______

Note that the "Effective Time Factor" allows for inaccuracies in estimation and additional staff time considerations such as staff meetings, staff training, maintenance of equipment, telephone calls and court time not related to programs (i.e. inquests). Where this factor cannot be estimated, a factor of .75 is recommended. If some or all of these staff time considerations can be calculated, the .75 factor can be altered accordingly and a more accurate assessment calculated.

Time available from staff that are available on a part time or occasional basis should be calculated separately, using a sound estimate of the amount of time they can contribute.

When assessing the time available from fire suppression crews, it must be established how they conduct activities in the Fire Prevention field. Do they conduct activities as a team or individually? It may be necessary to determine the time available from them based upon teams, not individuals. Do they conduct activities seasonally or year round? This would be reflected in the number of weeks per year that they are available. Time required for activities such as emergency response training and maintenance needs to be recognized. This should be determined and totaled separately from staff assigned exclusively to fire prevention activities.

  1. Determine Program Time Requirements.

The tables below will help to determine the time requirements where there is a consistent repetitive aspect to the program. In situations where the subject program has no repetitive aspect, the program should be considered in phases and a projected approximate time determined for each phase. Adding the time for each phase will give you the total required time for that program.

Inspection Program:

Group of Bldgs Requiring Inspection

Method of Inspection Conducted

Average Time to Complete Inspection

Numbers of Bldgs in This Group

Total Time Required to Inspect Group

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total Time Required

 

Definitions:

Group of Properties Requiring Inspection - The targeted group established in the Program Development Section.

Method of Inspection Conducted - The Method of Inspection established in the Program Development Section. The level of inspection must be established for the Inspection Program as this will have an impact on the amount of time required.

Average Time to Complete Inspection - The average amount of time, determined from experience, to conduct a complete inspections and achieve compliance for the relevant Category of building. This time includes travel, preparation, inspection, interviews, report writing, research and consultation, follow-up inspections, and enforcement.

Number of Properties in a Group - An inventory, or at least an approximation, of the number of properties that fall within a group. Other than for Routine Inspections, this would be an estimate of the number required to be inspected as a result of the expected demand (e.g. for Complaints, an estimate of the number of Complaints expected for this group).

Total Time Required to Inspect - The total time required to complete one inspection (through to compliance) of all the properties that fall within this group.

Total Time Required - The total amount of time required to inspect all identified properties once. If the established frequency is semi-annual, this would need to be multiplied by two to determine the resources required for one year.

Public Safety Education:

Type of Program

Average Time to Complete

Estimated Number of Programs

Total Time Required

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fire Incident Evaluation:

Level of Fire Incident Evaluation

Average Time to Complete Each Fire Incident Evaluation

Estimated Number of Fires to be Evaluated

Total Time required to Evaluate Fires

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Average Time to Complete - The amount of time, determined from experience, required to complete all of the related duties, including travel, preparation, conducting the program, and report writing.